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                切削液過濾加工方法簡析

                • 發表時間:2020-08-24 09:40:02
                • 來源:未知
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                  1概述
                 
                  鈦合金具有低密度(約4.5g/cm3)、高強度和耐腐蝕性(如酸、堿、海水和大氣)等一系列優良的機械和物理性能。因此,它被廣泛應用于航空航天、核能、化工、石油、冶金、醫療設備等行業。
                 
                 ?。?)鈦合金分類。鈦是一種熔點為1720℃,異構化溫度為882℃的同分異構體。當溫度低于882℃時,鈦的結構為六角形,稱為α-鈦。當溫度高于882℃時,它具有體心立方晶格結構,稱為β鈦。根據上述兩種組織的不同特點,加入不同的合金元素,逐步改變相變溫度和相含量,得到不同組織的鈦合金。
                 
                  鈦合金在室溫下有三種基本結構,可分為以下三種類型。①α鈦合金。由α固溶體組成的單相合金。其耐熱性比純鈦高,結構穩定,抗氧化性強,強度仍保持在500~600℃,抗蠕變能力強,但熱處理不能強化。等級為ta4-ta8。硬度為240-300hb,抗拉強度σB為340-981mpa,延伸率δ為10%-25%,沖擊值AK為(29.43-58.86)×104j/m2,導熱系數к為7.54-10.47w/m·K。②β鈦合金。由β相固溶體組成的單相合金。該合金未經熱處理,具有較高的強度。淬火時效后,合金進一步強化,但熱穩定性差,不適合在高溫下使用。等級為tb1和TB2。硬度為240-300hb,抗拉強度σB為1079-1373mpa,延伸率δ為18%,沖擊值AK為29.43×104j/m2,導熱系數為6.28w/m·K。③α+β鈦合金。它由α和β雙軸組成。同時存在α穩定元素和β穩定元素,如Cr、Co、Fe、Ni和Mn,它們穩定了β相。Sn和Zr在α相和β相中都有相當大的固溶度,是有效的增強劑。該合金組織穩定,高溫變形性能好,韌性和塑性好,可以通過淬火和時效來強化。熱處理后的強度比退火態提高50%-100%。高溫強度高,可在400-500℃長期工作。其熱穩定性僅次于α鈦合金。等級為tc1-tc10。結果表明,該材料的硬度為210~365hb,抗拉強度σB為589~1059mpa,延伸率δ為10%~15%,沖擊值AK為(29.43~44.15)×104j/m2,導熱系數κ為5.44~9.63w/m·K。
                 
                  在三種鈦合金中,α鈦合金的切削加工性能較好,其次是α+β鈦合金,β鈦合金的切削性能最差。其中最常用的是α-鈦合金和α+β鈦合金。
                 
                 ?。?)鈦合金的性能和特點。
                 
                 ?、俦葟姸雀?。鈦合金密度低,強度高,比強度(σB/ρ)大于超高強度鋼。
                 
                 ?、跓釓姸雀?。鈦合金具有良好的熱穩定性和高溫強度,能在500℃下長時間工作,而鋁合金只能在200℃以下工作。在300~500℃下,鈦合金的強度比鋁合金高10倍左右。
                 
                 ?、哿己玫哪透g性。它的耐海水腐蝕性比鈦合金鋼長時間的耐腐蝕性要好得多。具有較強的耐點蝕、耐酸腐蝕和應力腐蝕性能。對堿、氯化物、氯、有機氯、硝酸、硫酸有良好的耐腐蝕性。然而,鈦對還原氧和鉻酸鹽介質的耐蝕性較差。
                 
                 ?、芩哂泻芨叩幕瘜W活性。鈦與大氣中的氧、氮、氫、一氧化碳、二氧化碳、水蒸氣和氮氣發生強烈反應。當碳含量大于0.2%時,鈦合金中會形成硬質tic。當溫度較高時,與n的相互作用形成tin硬表面,當溫度高于600℃時,鈦能吸收氧氣,形成硬度較高的硬化層。如果氫含量增加,也會形成硬化層。表面硬脆層深度可達0.1~0.15mm,鈦的硬度比基體高20%~30%。鈦的化學親和力也很大,很容易與摩擦表面結合
                 
                  1.Overview
                 
                  Titanium alloy has a series of excellent mechanical and physical properties,such as low density(about 4.5 g/cm3),high strength and corrosion resistance(such as acid,alkali,seawater and atmosphere).Therefore,it has been widely used in aviation,aerospace,nuclear energy,chemical industry,petroleum,metallurgy and medical equipment industries.
                 
                  (1)Classification of titanium alloys.Titanium is an isomer with a melting point of 1720℃and an isomerization temperature of 882℃.When the temperature is below 882℃,the structure of titanium is hexagonal,which is calledα-titanium.When the temperature is above 882℃,it has a body centered cubic lattice structure,which is calledβtitanium.According to the different characteristics of the above two structures,different alloy elements are added to change the phase transformation temperature and phase content gradually,so as to obtain titanium alloys with different structures.
                 
                  At room temperature,titanium alloys have three basic structures,which can be divided into the following three types.①αtitanium alloy.Single phase alloy composed ofαsolid solution.Its heat resistance is higher than that of pure titanium,its structure is stable,its oxidation resistance is strong,its strength is still maintained at 500-600℃,and its creep resistance is strong,but it can not be strengthened by heat treatment.The grades are ta4-ta8.The hardness is 240-300hb,tensile strengthσB is 340-981mpa,elongationδis 10%-25%,impact value AK is(29.43-58.86)×104j/m2,thermal conductivityкis 7.54-10.47w/m·K.②βtitanium alloy.Single phase alloy composed ofβphase solid solution.The alloy has higher strength without heat treatment.After quenching and aging,the alloy is further strengthened,but the thermal stability is poor,so it is not suitable to be used at high temperature.The grades are tb1 and TB2.The hardness is 240-300hb,tensile strengthσB is 1079-1373mpa,elongationδis 18%,impact value AK is 29.43×104j/m2,thermal conductivityкis 6.28w/m·K.③α+βtitanium alloy.It is composed ofαandβbiaxially.There are bothαstable elements andβstable elements,such as Cr,Co,Fe,Ni and Mn,which stabilize theβphase.Both Sn and Zr have considerable solid solubility inαandβphases and are effective strengthening agents.This kind of alloy has stable structure,good high temperature deformation,toughness and plasticity,and can be quenched and aged to strengthen the alloy.The strength after heat treatment is 50%-100%higher than that of annealed state.It has high strength at high temperature and can work at 400-500℃for a long time.Its thermal stability is second only to that ofα-titanium alloy.The grades are tc1-tc10.The results show that the hardness is 210-365hb,tensile strengthσB is 589-1059mpa,elongationδis 10%-15%,impact value AK is(29.43-44.15)×104j/m2,thermal conductivityкis 5.44-9.63w/m·K.
                 
                  Among the three kinds of titanium alloys,the machinability ofαtitanium alloy is relatively good,followed byα+βtitanium alloy,and the worst isβtitanium alloy.Among them,the most commonly used areα-titanium alloy andα+βtitanium alloy.
                 
                  (2)The properties and characteristics of titanium alloy.
                 
                 ?、貶igh specific strength.Titanium alloy has low density and high strength,so its specific strength(σB/ρ)is greater than that of ultra-high strength steel.
                 
                 ?、贖igh thermal strength.Titanium alloy has good thermal stability,high temperature strength and can work at 500℃for a long time,while aluminum alloy can only work below 200℃.The strength of titanium alloy is about 10 times higher than that of aluminum alloy at 300-500℃.
                 
                 ?、跥ood corrosion resistance.Titanium alloy can work in humid atmosphere and seawater for a long time,and its corrosion resistance is much better than that of stainless steel.It has strong resistance to pitting corrosion,acid corrosion and stress corrosion.It has excellent corrosion resistance to alkali,chloride,organic compound of chlorine,nitric acid and sulfuric acid.However,titanium has poor corrosion resistance to reducing oxygen and chromate media.
                 
                 ?、躀t has high chemical activity.Titanium reacts strongly with O,N,h,Co,CO2,water vapor and nitrogen in the atmosphere.When the carbon content is more than 0.2%,hard tic will be formed in titanium alloy.When the temperature is higher,the tin hard surface will be formed by the interaction with n.When the temperature is above 600℃,titanium can absorb oxygen and form a hardened layer with higher hardness.If the hydrogen content increases,the hardening layer will also be formed.The depth of hard and brittle surface layer can reach 0.1-0.15mm,and the hardness of titanium is 20%-30%higher than that of base.The chemical affinity of titanium is also large,and it is easy to bond with the friction surface.
                 
                 ?、軹he thermal conductivity is low and the elastic modulus is small.The thermal conductivity of titanium is very low,which is 15.24 w/m·K,1/4 of nickel,1/5 of iron and 1/4 of aluminum.However,the thermal conductivity of various titanium alloys is lower,which is generally 50%of that of titanium.For example,theкof TC4 is 7.95 w/m·K,and that of TC9 is 7.12 w/m·K.The elastic modulus E of titanium and titanium alloy is 110 000 MPa,which is about 1/2 of that of general steel,so it has poor rigidity and easy deformation.⑥Low temperature performance is good.Titanium alloy remains its mechanical properties at low and ultra-low temperatures(-100~-253℃),which is an important low-temperature structural material.
                 
                  2.Cutting characteristics of titanium alloy
                 
                  The melting point of titanium is high(1720℃),the activation energy is large,and the lattice atoms are not easy to get out of their equilibrium position.Therefore,the energy consumed in cutting into chips is large.The more alloying elements are added,the higher the strength and hardness of the alloy,and the more difficult it is to cut.The results show that when the hardness of titanium alloy is higher than 350 Hb,the machining is more difficult.When the hardness is less than 300hb,it is easy to stick the tool and it is difficult to cut.The best cutting hardness of titanium alloy is 300~350hb.The reason why titanium alloy is difficult to cut is not only hardness,but also other mechanical,physical and chemical properties.Its cutting characteristics are as follows.
                 
                  (1)The deformation coefficient is small.The chip deformation coefficient of cutting titanium alloy is slightly less than 1 or close to 1,which is a significant feature of cutting titanium alloy.The reason for the small plastic deformation and chip shrinkage is that titanium transforms fromαtoβat high cutting temperature,and the volume ofβtitanium increases,which leads to chip growth.Under the action of high temperature,titanium chips absorb
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